The Inca regarded themselves as the rulers
of the world
their state existed only for 90 years. This empire extended over almost
5,000 kilometres (from north to south), along the Andes and the Pacific
Cuzco was the political, religious and cultural
centre of the empire. Not only the ruler resided in the large town, but
there was also the main shrine, the sun temple and the main place for
education. During the arrival of the first Spaniards in Peru, up to
200,000 people should have lived in Cuzco.
the centralist state machinery, the Inca had their power. They extended
consequently their sphere of influence by annexing the surrounding area
to the Inca state either with diplomacy or with conquest. Finally, the
Inca ruled over the largest part of the southern Andes. They extended
their empire into the northern part of Ecuador and Bolivia.
was the official language in the Inca empire. This language was the
mother tongue of the people, who had already lived in the valley of
Cuzco in the past, before the Inca. Today, million of Indians speak the
language in Peru and Ecuador.
As the Spaniards came
into the country with around 160 people, the Incas were weakened due to
illness brought to the empire and they were distracted because of wars
caused by the line of successions. Therefore, the Europeans, being
superior in weapons, conquered easily the empire. In 1533, the last
ruler Atahualpa was murdered.